By Matthew J. Goff
The knowledge culture of historical Israel, represented within the Hebrew Bible through Proverbs, activity, and Ecclesiastes and within the Apocrypha by way of Ben Sira and the knowledge of Solomon, can be well-attested within the texts from Qumran. 4QInstruction (1Q26, 4Q415 418, 4Q423), the most important knowledge textual content of the lifeless Sea Scrolls, is taken into account a sapiential textual content basically due to its specific and insistent pedagogical nature. To make this crucial knowledge textual content extra commonly on hand, this quantity deals a serious version, translation, and remark at the major fragments of 4QInstruction. It examines specific texts of 4QInstruction in addition to broader matters, together with its date, style, major issues, and position in moment Temple Judaism. ultimately, with a view to contextualize this pivotal paintings, 4QInstruction s dating to the sapiential and apocalyptic traditions is additionally explored.
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Additional resources for 4QInstruction
4Q415 2 ii 3 Line 3 is also about marriage. The phrase “all the day long” concluded a phrase that began at the end of line 2, which has not survived. The whole statement probably stressed to the woman that her devotion to marriage and to her husband should be constant (cf. l. 6). The line attests חיקו. ” The “bosom” reading is preferred because this word is prominent in other marriage texts of 4QInstruction. 4Q416 2 iv 5 refers to the wife of the mebin as “the wife of your bosom” ( ;אשת חיקכהcf.
V. 8; 7:32; 31:4; 34:25). In contrast to both of these texts, 4QInstruction shows surprisingly little interest in the poor as an economic class. 86 There is, however, intense concern for the addressee as a poor person. The traditional sapiential instruction on borrowing and surety is applied to the addressee. To return to Tigchelaar’s skepticism regarding the poverty of the envisioned mebin, the point is not whether he is poor or not. The text repeatedly asserts that he is. The question is what is meant by such assertions.
Indeed, 4Q417 1 i 8–9 not only claims that God created the world with the mystery that is to be, but then asserts, in parallel language, that he did so with wisdom: God “m[ade (it) with wis]dom ( )חכ[כהand for everything [with cleve]rness he fashioned it” (cf. Sir 42:21). 4Q418 126 ii 4–5 extols God’s use of wisdom in his creation of the world: “He has spread them out, in truth he has established them [… From God nothing] is hidden. Moreover, nothing exists without his good will and apart from [his] wis[dom] ([( ”… )ומחוכ]מתוcf.
4QInstruction by Matthew J. Goff