By J. Hicks (Auth.)
A realistic 'how to do it' e-book written with the layout and welding interface in brain. It informs designers not just of what they need to find out about welding but additionally, and most significantly, units out the knowledge the fashion designer should still supply to the welding engineer or fabrication superintendent in order that the designer's goals could be completed, when it comes to engineering functionality, defense, reliability, price and visual appeal
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Extra info for A Guide to Designing Welds
47 Using an ultrasonic probe to detect defects. 57 cavity in it, more radiation passes through and affects the film which then appears dark in those areas after being developed. Interpretation of radiographs requires training, experience, knowledge of welding and careful viewing. The novice may miss significant images or fail to understand the nature of those which do appear. The technique is not sensitive to tightly closed cracks lying out of the plane of the direction of radiation. The use of radiographs requires that there be access to both sides of the joint, the film being placed on one side and the radiation source on the other.
If the results of these tests show that the weld meets the requirements of the product specification it can be approved for use. Test results are recorded on a document called a 'procedure qualification record' (PQR for short) and requirements for these welding procedure tests are given in standards and codes such as BS EN 288 and ASME IX. To give a customer confidence that the WPS is suitable, an inspector may be sent to monitor the welding and the tests, alternatively welding and testing may be witnessed by an independent inspection company who will confirm that the tests have been properly carried out.
Another characteristic of steel plate which may be specified is its resistance to lamellar tearing as measured by the ductility of a tensile testpiece taken from the through-thickness direction of a plate. 41) distributed on a microscopic a) b) 41 Steels with differing inclusion contents: a) Clean steel (low inclusion content); b) Dirty steel (high inclusion content). 49 42 Lamellar tear induced on welding steel with a high non-metallic inclusion content. scale (not the same as laminations which are on a far larger scale).
A Guide to Designing Welds by J. Hicks (Auth.)