By Jiping Bai
Part one offers with FRP composite matrix fabrics which supply the root for composite fabrics, with individuals reviewing the chemistry of phenolic resins including their mechanical and thermal houses, polyester thermoset resins as matrix fabrics, the chemistry of vinylester resins, and epoxy resins often to be had at the market.
The mechanical homes of FRP composites are based upon the ratio of fiber and matrix fabrics, the mechanical homes of the constituent fabrics, the fiber orientation within the matrix, and eventually, the processing and strategies of fabrication, that are the topic of half . Chapters talk about prepreg processing, liquid composite molding (LCM), filament winding techniques, and pultrusion of complex FRP composites.
Part 3 is dedicated to the homes, functionality, and checking out of FRP composites and offers with the elastic estate research of laminated complex composites. This part supplies a common review of composite stiffness and assesses unidirectional bolstered composites and appears into the fundamental mechanisms interested in the environmental degradation of FRP composites and the influence of the growing older mechanisms of the polymer matrix at the mechanical houses of composites.
Part 4 studies using FRP composites in numerous structural purposes. It covers a large rage of software in civil engineering infrastructures, together with complex FRP composites to reinforce buildings liable to seismic harm, FRP composite fabrics for bridge building and rehabilitation, the manufacture and rehabilitation of pipes and tanks within the oil and fuel undefined, and the rehabilitation of trees and urban structures.
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Additional info for Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications
These natural products can be found in certain plant tissues, such as bark, fruit and wood, and can be removed from these sources by extraction with water. Tannins are classified in two groups: hydrolyzable tannins and condensed tannins (Mueller-Harvey, 2001). The condensed tannins are flavonoids with complex structures (Fig. 5). The phenolic groups present in tannin enable this macromolecule to participate in the same reactions as phenol (Tondi and Pizzi, 2009). , 2010). , 2008). , 2010; Ramires and Frollini, 2012).
2004). , 2010) were found to be as brittle as the phenolic thermoset. , 2009). Kumar et al. (2009) investigated the tensile and flexural properties of phenolic composites reinforced with coir and glass fibers. The best tensile © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013 30 Advanced FRP composites for structural applications and flexural strength results were obtained for composites prepared with fibers 20 mm in length and with 1:2 coir:glass fiber volume ratios. Mathur et al. (2010) used multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to reinforce phenolic resins using both the wet and dry dispersion techniques before molding.
This structural feature, coupled with the low viscosity in the temperature range in which composites are usually prepared, allow phenolic resins to wet the reinforcements, which in turn allows for cross-linking through the © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013 Phenolic resins as a matrix material in advanced FRP composites 27 reinforcement. These important characteristics contribute to the achievement of good adhesion at the matrix–reinforcement interface. Lignocellulosic fibers are mainly composed of cellulose, hemicellulose (or polioses) and lignin, which correspond to macromolecules with chemical structures rich in hydroxyl groups; lignin also has phenolic-type aromatic rings in its structure.
Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites for structural applications by Jiping Bai