By T. S. Cale, F. S. Pintchovski
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Additional resources for Advanced Metallization for Ulsi Applications
Nöggerath J (1990), ‘Zur Makroelementkorrosion von Stahl in Beton – Potential – und Stromverteilung in Abhängigkeit verschiedener Einflussgrössen’, Diss. ETH No. 9310. Page C L (1992), ‘Nature and properties of concrete in relation to reinforcement corrosion’, in The Corrosion of Steel in Concrete, EEC Comett Course 17–19 February 1992, Aachen and Oxford, Institut für Bauforschung, RWTH Aachen and Department for Continuing Education, University of Oxford. Parrott L J (1990), ‘Damage caused by carbonation of reinforced concrete’, Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions, 23, 230–4.
G. Bamforth 1996, Tang 1996b, Siemens et al. 1998, Thomas and Bamforth 1999, Helland 2001). 9] where: c(x,t) = chloride content at depth x and time t, M %/cem. erfc = error function, Deff,C = effective chloride diffusion coefficient, m2/s cs = surface or near surface chloride content, M %/cem. x = depth, m t = time (age), s With this equation the chloride profiles can be calculated as a function of time and surface chloride concentration. It must be recognised that the chloride diffusion coefficient is not a constant but varies for instance with the age (time), depth (pore structure) and the moisture content of the concrete (climatic conditions).
The resistivity approaches zero by rather low temperatures around -25 to -40 °C. 13 (Hunkeler 1994). 13] where rC,0 = resistivity at T0 (T0 appr. between -25 and -40 °C) T, T0 = absolute temperature in K br = constant in K For br values between 2100 and 5500 K have been found (Hunkeler 1994, Schiegg 2002). The corrosion rate increases with increasing temperature. This holds true for corrosion caused by carbonated concrete as well as for the chlorideinduced attack. 14. i corr = i 0e bi , corr 1 ˆ Ê 1 Ë T T0 ¯ where I0 = icorr with T0 (T0 approximately between -25 and -40 °C) T, T0 = absolute temperature in K bi,corr = constant in K.
Advanced Metallization for Ulsi Applications by T. S. Cale, F. S. Pintchovski