By Mary W. Helms

ISBN-10: 029273817X

ISBN-13: 9780292738171

Ancient Panama provides intensity to our realizing of the political and spiritual elite ruling in Panama on the time of the eu conquest. Mary W. Helms's learn tremendously expands wisdom of the distribution, volume, and structural nature of those pre-Columbian chiefdoms.

In addition, Helms delves extra deeply into pick out features of old Panamanian political structures, together with the connection among elite festival and mainly prestige, using sumptuary items within the expression of elite strength, and the function of elites in nearby and long-distance alternate networks. In an important departure from conventional considering, she proposes that the hunt for esoteric wisdom used to be extra vital than fiscal alternate in constructing long-distance touch between chiefdoms.

The fundamental info for the examine are derived from sixteenth-century Spanish files through Oviedo y Valdés, Andagoya, Balboa, and others. the writer additionally turns to ethnographic info from modern local humans of Panama, Colombia, tropical the United States, and Polynesia for analogy and comparability. the result's a hugely cutting edge examine which illuminates not just pre-Columbian Panamanian elites but additionally the character of chiefdoms as a particular cultural type.

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More recently, facing the Liberal government, the FSLN has not acted as an opposition but rather as a collaborator.... I always maintained and continue to maintain that the current government is a Somocista government, one that seeks to bring back somocismo.... 64 On December 2, 1999, the Nicaraguan Center for Human Rights (CENIDH), a Sandinista-affiliated human rights group, released an exhaustive critique of the agreements included in the Pact. S. intervention in Nicaragua. Nine years later the fortyfive-year Somoza family dictatorship began.

Parties and Pacts in Contemporary Nicaragua 39 The Aleman-Ortega Pact was frequently compared to the pacts of the Somoza years. But there was a big difference. The Somoza era pacts were between one very strong political force and one segment of a much weaker political force which was willing to be used by the stronger for a specific political purpose in return for certain limited favors. The AlemBn-Ortega Pact was between roughly equal leaders, equal both in power and, perhaps, in vulnerability.

Because credit for small farmers and cooperatives was difficult to obtain under conditions imposed by the multilaterals, some Sandinistas feared that if small farmers received legal title to their lands, they would have to sell immediately to feed their families. Property was becoming concentrated again in fewer hands; but now some of the big landholders were Sandinistas. 28Manuel Espinoza said that he had asked Daniel Ortega, whom he noted had been called a caudillo, what he thought about the calls for new leadership.

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Ancient Panama: Chiefs in Search of Power by Mary W. Helms

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